Milk glossary

Aseptic packing – process providing for separate sterilization of product and packaging. Then the packaging is filled with product and sealed in sterile conditions. This prevents a quick product spoilage and provides its long shelf life without use of preservatives.

Yoghurt – fermented milk product obtained from milk by its ripening with pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria. Yogurt is rich in vitamins of B group and contains readily digestible proteins and calcium. The ingredients and enzymes contained in yogurt drink remove harmful substances from body and enhance resistance to infections.

Starter – special formulation consisting of lactic acid bacteria causing fermentation. The starter is obtained from specially derived strains of pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria, from maw of herbivores and from fungus cultures, such as kefir mushroom, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and others. It is to be understood that all starters differ both in their composition and quantity of bacteria. For example, in case of kefir, a starter on the basis of kefir mushroom is used, and for infant food, that on the basis of bifido- and lactobacteria is used.

Kefir mushrooms - symbiotic group consisting of more than 30 species of bacteria and microorganisms and resembling by its appearance cauliflower inflorescences. They are used for obtaining milk product called kefir.

Kefir – fermented milk product ripened with the use of kefir mushrooms. Kefir influences favorably intestinal microflora: just pair of glasses of this drink per day prevents development of intestinal infections and wins quickly dysbacteriosis, for example, caused by antibiotics. Kefir boosts immune system, eliminates chronic fatigue. It is indispensable in case of sleep disturbances and nervous system diseases, it helps to lose weight (if being drunk regularly) and very efficient in quenching one's thirst during hot days.

Lactose – milk sugar contained only in milk. It is less sweet than beet sugar. Milk contains lactose in dissolved condition. It is the main nutrition source for lactic acid bacteria, and due to their life activity milk sugar converts into lactic acid.

Lactose (dry) – milk sugar in the form of dry powder. The raw material used for its obtaining is milk whey, from which, with the use of membrane technology and drying, milk sugar is separated and then dewatered. In manufacture of condensed milk, lactose is additionally introduced to prevent forming large sugar crystals during condensed milk storage.

Lactase – enzyme which serves for breaking down lactose in stomach.

Milk – body fluid formed as a result of complicated processes taking place in the mammary gland. Milk consists of water and dry residue including fat, proteins, milk sugar, mineral salts, as well as microelements, vitamins and enzymes. Milk that gets human body serves as a source of mineral substances maintaining acid-alkali balance in tissues and osmotic pressure in blood and also promoting normal physiologic body activity.

Pasteurization – process consisting in heating milk to 88ºС for 20 seconds. The main purpose of pasteurization is extermination of various microorganisms which may be contained there and act adversely. In this case, the degree of such action is, as a rule, determined by the temperature milk is heated to. At present, pasteurization is the most simple and safe method of milk decontamination. It is worth to note that pasteurization is used during production of all milk products, to avoid negative action on milk and development of undesirable microorganisms.

Milk sterilization – heating milk to a temperature more than 100°C. Due to this technology, all bacteria and all their spores are exterminated in milk. Sterilized milk is convenient due to the fact that it may be stored for a long time. When stored at a temperature of +8ºС, it withholds 2 months of storage. However, during boiling and, moreover, during sterilization, milk loses important serum proteins (albumin and globulin). This process you could observe many times by yourself when, during boiling milk at home, you saw settled white deposit on pan walls, which is difficult to be washed off.

Ultra-high temperature treatment – process of heat treatment for the purpose of extension of shelf life of food product. Milk for 2-4 seconds is heated to temperature of 138°C and then is immediately cooled down to temperature of 20°C.

In this case, all the pathogens and microorganisms are exterminated. After such treatment, milk is suitable for consumption up to 6 months/

Standardized milk – this is a product obtained from fresh whole milk by removal or addition of certain ingredients, to reduce milk composition to the specified indices. In other words, this is natural milk brought to specified fat content, quantity of carbohydrates, mineral substances and vitamins.

Baked milk – milk product manufactured from whole milk by means of its durable uniform heat treatment. The industrial production process provides for preliminary pasteurization of milk which after that is held at a temperature of 95ºС in closed containers for not less than 3 hours. During this time period, milk gains a light brown color and caramel aftertaste.

Fermented baked milk – this fermented milk product comprises a national Ukrainian product manufactured from cow baked milk. It is ripened with pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria. It has yellowish creamy shade and traditional fermented milk taste. Fermented baked milk has practically the same content of useful substances as whole milk, but it is better assimilated by human body. In comparison with kefir, fermented baked milk has more delicate sweetish aftertaste.

Concentrated milk – condensed milk obtained without addition of sugar. Concentrated milk usually has not white but rather creamy color and slightly salty aftertaste. Such milk is stored for a long time since technology of its manufacture is similar to that of condensed milk manufacture, but provides for no addition of sugar. It is used in small doses as an ingredient of drinks, sauces, soups or is added to dough.

Condensed milk - this product is obtained from milk mixture subjected to heat treatment by partial evaporation of water from it and concentrating with sugar. When natural cow milk is condensed, its useful properties are not lost but simply preserved.

Sour cream – cream subjected to lactic-acid fermentation. When sour cream is manufactured by industrial method, milk is, at first, separated (divided into cream and skimmed milk), then obtained cream is pasteurized and ripened with the use of pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria.

Curd - fermented milk product, a kind of cheese obtained by ripening milk with subsequent removal of whey. Curd is one of the most useful fermented milk products. Apart from its excellent taste, curd possesses many healing qualities for human body. The unique curd properties are due to technology used for manufacture of this product. In the process of making curd from milk, the most valuable components, that is, easily assimilated protein and milk fat, are separated from milk.

Milk powder comprises a soluble powder which is manufactured by evaporation of milk. The manufacturing process includes two stages: condensing milk and drying the preliminarily condensed product at a temperature of 140 to 170°C to dry condition. Milk powder is widely used in food industry. Milk powder has a much more durable storage life than liquid milk and requires no storage in refrigerator. One more objective of milk drying consists in reduction of its mass, which is substantial for saving during transportation. There exist various kinds of milk powder: whole milk powder, skimmed milk powder, buttermilk powder, dry whey products and dry milk mixtures.

Fermentation – process of anaerobic disintegration of carbohydrates into simpler compounds with release of energy, which takes place with participation of some microorganisms or enzymes separated from the latter.

One of examples of fermentation is alcoholic fermentation caused by yeast and consisting in disintegration of sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide. There are also known lactic-acid fermentation, butyric fermentation, acetic-acid fermentation and others. Ability of microorganisms to cause fermentation with accumulation of products specific for them is used by industry for mass production of these substances (for example, in case of alcoholic fermentation, obtaining alcohol).

Lactic-acid fermentation – biochemical process of transformation of carbohydrates into lactic acid by means of microorganisms. This process is one of the most widely spread processes in nature. When kefir is manufactured, a starter is used, which is prepared from kefir mushrooms. For this reason, a combined type of fermentation takes place, that is, lactic-acid and alcoholic one. In case of combined fermentation, lactic acid and ethanol are formed, so kefir contains a small share of alcohol.

Food supplements – these are natural and chemical substances added to foods to impart them certain properties: durable shelf life, appetizing appearance, fragrant odor, consistency characteristic of product. The food supplements include: colors, flavors and preservatives. It is widely thought that all food supplements marked with letter E are very harmful for human body. But you can draw the right conclusions, only having complete information. Index “E” (Europe) was introduced in due time for convenience: as a matter of fact, each supplement has long name finding no room on the label.

Preservative – substance used for lengthening time of retention of certain product properties (goodness of food).

Natural preservative - table salt, sugar, citric acid, lactic acid, vinegar, vegetable oil, soda, honey from the earliest times are used as preservatives in the process of obtaining foods.

Synthetic preservative – chemically obtained preservative making possible to store products for a long time without observance of temperature mode characteristic of the product. But in case of addition, synthetic preservatives may affect quality and usefulness of the product in unfavourable way.

Natural colors – natural pigments obtained from various fruits, berries, vegetables. Apart from coloring pigments, colors contain taste and flavor ingredients. The natural colors include: beet juice, carrot juice, grape peel extract, cocoa powder, paprika, turmeric, etc.

Fruit filler – fruit processing product obtained from fruit juices and/or fruit purees, with addition or without addition of sugar, comprising a dense syrupy or jellified mass with fruits evenly distributed over mass.

Strain - a pure culture of certain kind of microorganism, for which morphological and physiological properties are studied. It may be obtained from different sources (ground, water, foods, etc.) or one source in different time. For this reason, the same kind of bacteria, yeasts, microscopic fungi may have a number of strains which differ from each other by several properties. Manufacture of various kinds of fermented milk products requires use of a certain set and required ratio of strains.

Tetra Brik– consumer packaging in combined material (cardboard with polyethylene coating) in the form of a rectangle produced from packaging material continuously rolled into hose. Cross sealing is carried out during filling with product below level of the product, and after that rectangular top and bottom are formed. The product filling is performed in sterile conditions. The packaging provides for different methods of closing it up, such as perforation, swing-up flap, tear strip and unscrewed cap. The shelf life for majority of products in this kind of packaging is from one week to one year.

Tetra-Rex – cardboard packaging manufactured from multilayer laminated material and consisting of cardboard, film and/or foil. The pack is manufactured from environmentally friendly materials and is tightly sealed. Such packaging may retain freshness of product for a long time, it is light and convenient for use, transportation and storage, it is compact and rather resistant to mechanical actions, pressure and deformations. A convenient shape and screwed cap with first-opening-up protective ring make it possible to open the pack many times, to be able to store the product after opening-up.

Doy-Pack – it is an innovational flexible packaging comprising a combined pack with bottom, which lets the packaging to stand vertically in filled condition. The barrier properties of the pack are none the worse than those of the tin can, and in terms of convenience, it surpasses the can. The Doy-pack packaging acquired a high popularity all over the world.

Polyfoil – it comprises a combined material consisting of two or more layers: as a rule, it is food-quality wrapping foil and greaseproof paper. Sometimes instead of (or in addition to) paper or polyethylene is used. As a result, a packaging is obtained, which combines the properties typical for each of materials separately: resistant to mechanical actions, convenient for print, resistant to light, grease, moisture and readily taking the required shape.

Whey – milk product obtained during manufacture of cheese and curd. Whey is used during preparation of drinks, cold soups, as well as separately.

Skimmed milk – it is obtained by separation of cream from whole milk in separator. It is used for preparation of milk powder, condensed milk and other skimmed milk products.

Cream – milk product obtained from whole milk by means of separation. Due to high fat content, cream is a very nutritional product.

Cream butter – main product obtained from cream. It comprises a concentrated milk fat (72-82.5% depending of butter kind). For manufacture of butter, cream is pasteurized at a temperature of 85-90°C. The following kinds of butter exist:

Sweet cream butter – it is manufactured from fresh cream;

Sour cream butter – it is manufactured from cream ripened with the use of fermented milk starters (for imparting a specific taste and flavor to butter).

Buttermilk – product obtained during manufacture of cream butter. It is used for preparation of drinks and separately.

Lactic-acid bacteria – general name of Lactobacillaceae bacteria family causing lactic-acid fermentation, in particular, fermentation of sugar into lactic acid; due to formation of lactic acid, milk is clotted.

Lactobacillus bulgaricus – species of lactic-acid bacteria. One of two species of bacteria used for manufacture of yogurt. It is called in honor of Bulgaria where it was discovered and used for the first time.

Streptococcus thermophilus – lactic-acid bacteria used as a starter during manufacture of yogurt, sour cream, fermented baked milk and some kinds of cheeses.